Hidden Issues about the China/India Border Strife!
The nuclear-armed Asian neighbours accuse each other of violating their shared de facto border [Faisal Khan/Anadolu]
India and China, two nuclear-armed Asian neighbours, are in a tense diplomatic and military standoff following their first deadly border clash in more than 40 years.
The June 15 incident in the disputed Galwan Valley, an arid Himalayan area along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), the de facto border between the two nations, left 20 Indian soldiers dead. China has yet to officially declare its casualties.
Indianand Chinese troops have been engaged in the standoff since early May at several points along the 3,500km (2,200-mile) LAC, most of which remains undemarcated.
The heightened tensions between the world's two most populous countries have drawn international concerns, with the United Nations urging both sides "to exercise maximum restraint". it
Here are five things you need to know about the dispute:
What happened on June 15?
The fighting on June 15 was triggered by a disagreement over two Chinese tents and observation towers that Indian officials said had been built on its side of the LAC.
Chinese troops breached the Line to set up temporary "structures" in the Galwan Valley even after military officials had reached an agreement on June 6 to de-escalate, Indian Foreign Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar told China's senior diplomat, Wang Yi, in a phone call.
The problem arose when an Indian patrol visited the area near a ridge to verify a Chinese assertion that its troops had moved back from the LAC, two government sources told Reuters news agency.
The Chinese troops had thinned out, leaving behind two tents and small observation posts, which the Indian party demolished, the sources said.
A large group of Chinese soldiers arrived and confronted the Indian troops. It was not clear what happened next, but the two sides soon clashed, the Chinese soldiers reportedly using iron rods and batons with spikes, killing 20 Indian soldiers and wounding dozens of others.
China has not said anything about any losses in the hand-to-hand combat.
On Sunday, V K Singh, Indian federal minister for roads and transport and a former army chief, claimed China lost at least 40 soldiers in the clash, without providing any evidence.
China's state-controlled Global Times said there had been Chinese casualties, but did not elaborate.
Indian army convoy moves along the Srinagar-Leh National highway towards Ladakh [Faisal Khan/Anadolu]
Why did the clash happen?
Experts mainly cite two reasons for the deadliest clash since 1975.
A major reason, according to some experts, is linked to India's unilateral move last year to repeal Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which had guaranteed a measure of autonomy to the former Jammu and Kashmir state, which also included the disputed areas in Ladakh region.
China, which, like Pakistan, saw India's move as unilaterally affecting its territory, strongly denounced the move at the UN Security Council last year.
Analysts also believe the current standoff is also a result of China's pushback against India's recent construction of infrastructure in border areas.
India inaugurated the 255km (158-mile) Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie (DSDBO) road, built along the LAC, last year. China objected, seeing the move as a threat to its interests in the region.
China's economic corridor to Pakistan and Central Asia passes through Karakoram, which is close to Galwan Valley, the site of the June 15 clash. Galwan Valley is close to Aksai Chin Plateau, which is under Chinese control but claimed by India.
According to Happymon Jacob, professor of international relations at New Delhi-based Jawaharlal Nehru University, China considers the Ladakh region crucial for its "access to Central Asia and CPEC project with Pakistan in which they [China] have invested billions of dollars [about $60bn]."
Indian Border Security Force soldiers guard a highway leading towards Leh, bordering China, in Gagangir [Tauseef Mustafa/AFP]
What is each side claiming?
Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said he was unaware of the specifics but that the Indian army had crossed into Chinese territory in several places in recent days - violating the agreement reached on June 6 - and that they should withdraw.
Calling it a "deliberate provocation" on New Delhi's part, Zhao said: "The rights and wrongs... are very clear and the responsibility rests entirely with the Indian side."
In response, India's foreign ministry spokesman Anurag Srivastava cautioned China against making "exaggerated and untenable claims" on the sovereignty of the Galwan Valley area.
India says China occupies 38,000 sq km (15,000 square miles) of its territory in the Aksai Chin Plateau in the Himalayas, with 12,000 Chinese soldiers reportedly pushing across the border.
Last week, India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi categorically refuted claims of China's takeover of any Indian territory - his statement contrasting with the government's earlier claims.
Modi's denial of a Chinese incursion triggered a controversy, with opposition leaders accusing the government of intelligence failures and asking why the clash happened in the first place.
Ashley Tellis, senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, believes the latest Chinese advances in the Ladakh region leaves India with "painful" choices.
"Beijing has moved into disputed territories that did not host a continual Chinese presence as recently as January 2020," Tellis wrote on June 4, days before the brawl.
Satellite pictures taken by Earth-imaging company, Planet Labs, in the days leading up to the clash, also suggest increased Chinese activity at the Galwan Valley.
"Looking at it in Planet, it looks like China is constructing roads in the valley and possibly damming the river," Jeffrey Lewis, director of the East Asia Nonproliferation Program at California's Middlebury Institute of International Studies, told Reuters.
"There are a tonne of vehicles on both sides [of the LAC] - although there appear to be vastly more on the Chinese side. I count 30-40 Indian vehicles and well over 100 vehicles on the Chinese side."
In addition to its dispute with China, India has found itself at loggerheads with two other neighbours - long-standing rival Pakistan, and Nepal.
Nepal and India have historically enjoyed good ties, but now find themselves engaged in what experts have called a cartographic war over border regions.
Last week, Nepal's Parliament approved a new map for the country, which includes land controlled by India.
"On the one hand, the major power in the region, China, is against India and on the other hand, smaller neighbours, which have been traditionally very friendly to India, are also negatively disposed to India. I think that is a major policy failure," Jacob told Al Jazeera.
The reaction in India to Chinese advances has been one of outrage, with citizens and trade associations calling for the Modi-led government to boycott Chinese goods.
Protesters across the country were seen burning Chinese flags and products, while videos on social media showed teenagers destroying their Chinese-made mobile phones.
Beijing is India's biggest trading partner, with annual bilateral trade worth $92bn. The trade imbalance between the two is significant, and favours China heavily.
In an interview to The Economic Times, Shyam Saran, former Indian foreign secretary, said India should avoid any "knee-jerk reactions" against China, claiming that it would be impossible for New Delhi to find alternative suppliers in the near future.
Jacob believes India should reach out to Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, also known as Quad - an informal strategic forum that includes India, Japan, Australia and the United States - to take on China.
"If the USA makes noises in favour of India and strengthens the Quad, it will send a message to China that we will take aggressive steps and will defend our interest," he said.
A trilateral summit between India, China and Russia is scheduled on Tuesday. The virtual meeting, to be attended by India's foreign minister, is likely to address the border standoff.
Meanwhile, the Indian and Chinese armies are also talking on the LAC to defuse the tensions.
Libya: GNA calls Egypt's military threat 'declaration of war'
Egyptian president warned of 'direct' intervention in Libya, citing the need to protect Egypt's porous border.
Libya's UN-recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) has denounced Egypt's warning of military intervention in Libya, labelling it a "declaration of war".
On Saturday, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi warned that if pro-GNA forces advanced on the strategic city of Sirte - some 450 kilometres (280 miles) east of the capital Tripoli - it could provoke a "direct" intervention by Cairo.
He also ordered the Egyptian army to be ready to carry out missions inside or outside of the country to protect its national security amid tensions over Turkey's intervention in Libya.
In response, the GNA said in a statement that Egypt's move was "a hostile act and direct interference, and amounts to a declaration of war".
The statement comes on the eve of a virtual meeting of Arab League foreign ministers on Libya, in which the GNA declined to participate.
For the Libyan state, "interference in its internal affairs, attacks on its sovereignty, whether by declarations ... like those of the Egyptian president or by support for putschists, militias and mercenaries, is unacceptable", the GNA said.
It said it was open to "all impartial mediation ... under the aegis of the UN" but rejected "unilateral or extrajudicial initiatives".
Oil-rich Libya has been mired in chaos since a NATO-backed 2011 uprising toppled longtime leader Muammar Gaddafi.
Since 2015, a power struggle has pitted the Tripoli-based GNA against renegade military commander Khalifa Haftar, who claims legitimacy from an eastern-based elected parliament.
Haftar has been trying unsuccessfully to seize the capital since April 2019, with support from Egypt, Russia and the United Arab Emirates.
Since the start of June, increased Turkish support has enabled pro-GNA forces to take control of northwest Libya, ending Haftar's assault on Tripoli.
The GNA advance is now halted outside the coastal city of Sirte, a strategic access point to Libya's key oil fields which remains under Haftar's control.
Sirte and Al-Jufra to the south represent a "red line", el-Sisi said in a television broadcast on Saturday, citing the need to protect Egypt's porous border.
If this line is crossed, Egyptian forces will directly intervene in Libya, el-Sisi said.
"All of Libya is a red line," the GNA responded. "Whatever the dispute between Libyans, we will not allow our people to be insulted or threatened."
But the speaker of Libya's eastern-based parliament, Aguila Saleh, defended el-Sisi's declaration, saying in a Sunday statement that the Egyptian president was "responding to our appeal to the Egyptian parliament" last January in which Saleh called for Egyptian intervention in Libya.
And on Sunday, the Jordanian foreign ministry issued a statement saying Amman supports Cairo "against any threat to the security and stability" of Egypt.
It came after the foreign ministers of both countries discussed the Libya conflict over the phone
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AKANCopied from the book, Reality as Myth by Onyeji Nnaji. The influence of the
Akan on their content nations lies on their population and commonwealth of
their brother nations. The Akan are one of the largest ethnic groups in West
Africa. Their population is scattered across West Africa and beyond. Among this
huge population of the Akan, the Ghanaians are more popular, perhaps because of
the political influence of the Ashanti Empire in the area. Not much is heard or
known about other Akan settlements like the Akwamu, the Akyem , the Akuapem,
the Denkyira, the Abron, the Aowin, the Ahanta, the Anyi, the Baoule, the
Chokosi, the Fante, the Kwahu, the Sefwi, the Ahafo, the Assin, the Evalue, the
Wassa the Adjukru, the Akye, the Alladian, the Attie,the M'Bato, the Abidji,
the Avikam,the Avatime the Ebrie, the Ehotile, the Nzema, the Abbe, the Aboure,
the Coromantins, the Ndyuka people and other peoples of Côte d'Ivoire. Every Akan nation adopts the image…
from the Book; "Reality as Myth"
by Onyeji Nnaji
of the discovering of the Radar Rivers and their channels is that it disproves
the western hegemonic claim of the Euphrates valley being the position of the
birth of the great river, all the points that opposed their claims
notwithstanding. Even God himself was very perfect in His creation by placing
them in their positions, hierarchically, according to their birth. The first
river that flowed located the Havilah land where there are good quality gold,
bdellium and fine onyx stones. Pison was the oldest of the rivers and it flowed
through the land of the southern Africa. The second river flowed northward to
Ethiopia. It was when Africa had been overtaken by virtue of her proximity to
the Great Water that other parts of the world began to encounter the remaining
river; remarkable with Hiddekel.
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The major problem towards deciphering the original plac…
Copied from the book, Reality as Myths by Onyeji NnajiThe world of the Bantu travellers shows the walls of the
migration that recorded the highest population among the African settlement.
Originating from the largest population among the four races that settled in
the east before time, all Bantu travellers were pygmies; for that was the
nature of the Umudiala, the
generation that gave birth to them. Bantu migration was rated the third
earliest migration of the Negro race from the east. In this regard, all their
movement had involved great population of people compared to the number of
people involved in the two earlier populations that gave birth to Ethiopia,
Nubia and Egypt: the Walker Traveller, and the
Race of Anu. Bantu population as we have identified in the third chapter
above outweighs the rest of the population of the ancient fathers that founded
many of the nations of antiquity mentioned earlier. Discussing them in beat
will pose a little challenge since their migration condi…
The name Nkalaha is a
coinage which stands for a people occupying a geographical land and regional
setting in the eastern part of Nigeria. It is a coinage which attempts to
explain the direction of movement and adventure of the men who founded the
community in the 15th century AD. According to oral sources and some
documentation about this community, some of these men were believed to have
traveled from Ida, old Benue state of Nigeria to inhabit the land. These men
had traveled on different days to locate the place. Onojah who originally
founded the land was said to have been in a deep search for a place of safety
as he was besieged by a fate that appeared to make him somewhat incompatible
with his own people. Nkalaha
is one of the communities that make up Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi
State. Nkalaha occupied the northern part of Ishielu Local Government Area. She
is located through the zip 135.031.000. The community sits on 923.768km2. She shares boundaries with neighbourin…
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will know that the man is the head while you are his neck. As such, you direct
his focus and make him fixativeOur series include the following: * Show him what he looks out for from other women * Teach him like he knows nothing * Learn to play naked games with your husband * Learn to package yourself * Learn to work on your husband
My neighbour had vowed never to let any girl
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times. Each time we brought a new salesgirl, the girl would stay for two or
three months; and suddenly she would end her contract with us. In all these, my
husband did not know. So, being that the girls usually stole money and other
items, the reason for their departure became genuine, thus: they ran away to
avoid being punished for their actions. But behind this, the underling truth is
that the girls had been embarrassed by my neighbour who would warn them to leave
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The Mystery of
Number, “Five” in the Igbo Cosmology.From: Aspects
of the Ancient African Metaphysics;Chapter: Seven;Topic: Igbo
Geometries and the Metaphysics of Numbers.Author: Onyeji
Nnaji. In the Igbo
cosmology, the word Isee is a definite symbolic word as revealed through
the Igbo language and culture. A human being has five fingers, five toes. The
hands and feet are fundamentals to the survival in life as they are necessary
in ensuring that man moves to places where he gets food and grapples on the
food to sustain his life. To this view, the rhetoric that binds vocatives in
the form of incantation (anchoring on the heart-lock: four) and the
concomitant reprisal in the manner of affirmation that holds the human life
bind to his original spiritual person, therefore defining existence and
essences are unified by the corresponding echo: Isee!!!!! Therefore
it stands that anytime a prayer is said in the Igbo land, the attendants who would
want the fulfillment of the prayer unanimously …
INTRODUCTION One thing that made Udi remarkable is the indubitable
legacy adopted in commemoration of the legendry fighter, Uto at Nsude. It was one
of the greatest contributions of the descendants of Agbaja to the survival of
Nsukka civilization of memory. Uto held from Oshie. Uto dies of small pox after
a mercenary battle he was hired to fight in the ancient Benin. His body was buried
in the evil forest as the tradition demanded. Although he lived no longer, the
stepped pyramids above were adopted to commemorate the lasting peace he brought
to the entire Oshie and Udi nation of people. Another remarkable thing about Udi is the
fertility of the land. This has contributed widely in sustaining the
inhabitants and provided a name for the inhabitants in the manner of Abakaliki,
Umudike, Ogbaru, Igboariam, Ohaji, Uzouwani, etc., especially in Amofia-Agu,
Affa. Udi is a land of great rivers and springs: Adaada, Ajali, Oji, Aria,
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ETHIOPIAHISTORY & ORIGIN (Extracted from the
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Those piles of ruins which you see in that narrow valley
watered by the Nile, are the remains of opulent cities, the pride of the
ancient kingdom of Ethiopia. ... There a people, now forgotten, discovered
while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race
of men now rejected from society for their sable skin and frizzled hair,
founded on the study of the laws of nature, those civil and religious systems
which still govern the universe(Count Volney). Because of the position of Ethiopia
in the Bible story as one remarkable black nation with ancient history, it
becomes almost impossible to see any other nation as being of more ancient than
Ethiopia. Ethiopia suddenly became the yardstick for the analysis of the Negro
race. And with the influence of Christianity in the inner part of Africa, the
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the families, far East Africa. The history of the Kikuyu Bantus is complicating
as many storytellers seem to fight for the interest of their clans. On the
contrary, the suggestion that Kikuyu population were the offspring of one man,
Gikuyu was the most suspicious information that did not sink down with real
historical supposition. Gikuyu and Kikuyu are two different ethnic groups with
different origin entirely. How Kikuyu, a Bantu settlement could come from Gikuyu
is not only probable, but fallacious. What is eminent is the fact that the
tribe that holds the traditional head of the Kikuyu Bantu is the Abaluya.
According to Oral sources, Gideon Were, John Osogo, Daniel Wako, among others,
“the clans in Abaluya are over twenty”. Significant enough, they all possess
the denoting prefix Aba in their names. They are Abanyole, Abetakho, Abesukha,
Abatsotso, Abanyala, Abakabras, Abatachoni, Abamarama, Abashisa, Abatirichi,