The basic of every language is the sound produced by such a language. The realization of these sound are concretized with the formation of letters which represent them and, with which also their evidences are made visual. The combination of the sounds of any language and the corresponding letters that represent the sounds produced at the time of conversations therefore brought all languages together as belonging to a system of/ same iconic instincts. Now, organised studies have constructively grouped them into vowels and consonants, and have shown how they may be structurally combined to form words. Every language emanates from these components before assuming its proto forms to be assigned meanings through their referent symbols. Being the fundamental stage which every language evolved from, at the period of stemming, Nkalaha language is also not an exception.

Diachronically, what we have today as Nkalaha language developed over time in consonance with events and people. With the passage of time and its occurring events, the language gained development through influences from the languages of the communities which the founding fathers had had contacts with. It is in this regard that the language may be credibly considered as specie specific; dialect. And as such, attention may be focused on Nkanu language; the general language of a people in the Igbo speaking language community. Of course, this reveals to a great extent the concomitant relationship existing amidst Nkalaha language and her history.

Nkalaha language began to take shape in the earliest part of 11th century when Onojah gained entrance into the sub regional set of Nsukka – Ogurugu – following the resultant scandal which accompanied the demise of his mother in Ofu. On arrival, Onojah was very strange in both lifestyle and communication. Meanwhile, Ogurugu was not Igala concentrated area, rather Igbo people. As a result, there were needs for a kind of breeding across the languages of the two communities which paved ways for each to assimilate the other and, at the same time, lose some of its aspects to the other. During this time, Onojah lose many of the vocabularies belonging to Igala language while he gained balance in acquiring those of his host communities. The more credible information which still bloom in his memoyes after this periods were mere names and few terms which the presence of Ibina – with whom the original language were still used – could help him to recall.

Apart from names, Onojah lose vast of the Igala grammar to the Igbo counterpart. The more prominent survivor of his original tongue that lasts to the modern time is the consonant cluster, /kch/, as in Uche. The knowledge of the origin of this consonant came to minds in the mediaeval era. A man was returning, at down, from Oye market to his base - the man lived in the boundary with Eha-Amufu - when a spirit confronted him. “Give me of your Uchu (pronounced Ukchu),” the spirit requested. “I do not have Uchu with me,” the man answered. “What is that you carry on the head?” “Ji,” the man answered. “Who told you that Uchu is called Ji, is that how you’ve so easily changed your tongue?” the spirit interrogated. From then it became obvious that the grouped consonant, /kch/ has Igala origin.

From Nsukka Onojah acquired two other sets that survived to the modern time. These are /gj/ as in Egja (sand), Egja (sacrifice), Ngjo (evil) etc. and /hv/ as in Ehva (name), Ehvam (fat), Ihvere (shyness), Ihvehvu (gift) etc. these three consonants /kch/, /gj/ and /hv/ are the reserve of the old Nkalaha dialect.         

The language received another massive influence in the 1070s from Nkanu language. When Onojah left Ogurugu and moved southward to Ama-Nkanu – the descendants of Awuwa – where he lived and departed after he had founded Nkalaha, the same year. Greater part of this influence was on the names of the inhabitants. This was the last influence the language received of old. Few example of the vocabularies realised from the above influences are stated below.
Uto (three)
Atama (chief priest)
Edeoga (chief priest)
Ubo (two)
Nwagja (small/little)
Lile (all)
Ebo (two)
Ubiam (impoverish)

Okuku (fowl)
Kena (now)

Egja (sand)
Okporoka (lies)

Ekele (greeting)

Okiri (castrated animal)

Eba (feather)

Alo (thanks)

Also are names like:




The doublies: puri-puri, lege-lege, gbolo-gbolo, gede-gede, ekpuke-ekpuke etc. have their origin from Nsukka language. From all these influences came the coining of the deep structural composition of Nkalaha proverbs, wise saying, rhyme words and doublies.

                        Doublies in Nkalaha Language.
In the use of language for colloquial purposes, several words or phrases are realized through coinages which often times are replicated in everyday conversations. In this manner, a peculiar kind of coinage – a language feature that is prominent in pigeon English – is purposefully invented and used in conversations mainly to spore humour and to ridicule certain actions or characterisation. Sometimes they are not used purposefully. This becomes the situation when they occur extemporaneously. When words are used in a manner that they are ungrammatically duplicated for emphases - such as follow-follow, look-look, touch-touch, waka-waka, beg-beg, borrow-borrow etc. - I refer to such word groupings as doublies.

In a paper posted, on request, to International Symposium on Language, Linguistics, Literature and Education held in Osaka; Japan 2013, Nnaji defined doublies as follow:

A doubly or collection of doublies, as a language feature, refers to a spontaneous duplication of certain words in a relatively ungrammatical style. In this, lexical properties (especially verbs) such as follow, look, talk, copy etc. are adversely duplicated as follow-follow, look-look, talk-talk, copy-copy etc. as was the situation with pigeon. This duplication is considered ungrammatical in pigeon, whereas in Nkalaha dialect it is duly grammatical.   
These ungrammatical compound words are prominent in Nkalaha language. The paper was intended to:
(A)   Justify the grammaticality of these doublies in Nkalaha dialect and the manner in which they are used.
(B)   Verify their influences on pigeon, and
(C)   Explicate their impacts on the study of English as L2 to Nigeria students.       
Nkalaha has several doublies that are wedded into her language and used as simple and natural as would every other language spoken by men. The difference between the doublies in pigeon and those that occur in Nkalaha language is that, in the later, doublies are neither used to evoke humour, ridicule actions nor used extemporaneously. Instead they are used as grammatical (not ungrammatical) constructions patterned for the expression of dominant situations, time, texture, quality, quantity, sounds, feeling, used for emphases and to indicate directions or point at a particular place, things or persons. Doublies were not coined into Nkalaha language as was the case with pigeon; instead they are structural constructions that compose the grammar aspects of the language which directly distinguished Nkalaha language from those of the communities in the neighbourhood.

As an aspect of Nkalaha vocabularies, doublies are designed in such a way that their semantic corroboration are, though dependent on the syntactic structures, drown from the community’s oral tradition from where her language had been patterned time immemorial. Each doubly has its meaning buried in its structural composition when stated individually or as an entity. But when it is used in a sentence, the meaning – though buried in its constituent structure – is dependent on the context of use, i.e. the dominant situation in the sentence controls the meaning inferred to the doubly.

In the case of Nkalaha language, doublies were not invented like the coinage in pigeon. They were placed the way they appear presently by the community’s oral tradition since the time when Nkalaha language developed. Few of the doublies used more often in conversations are stated below.
Denotative meaning
Context of use.
Exact, pinpointing etc.
Attempting to describe a point, place or things.
Unsteady sound.
Expressing the sound of bones when the body is stretched.
Very early
On time, too early etc.
Expressing time: how early enough when somebody departed.
Just now
Immediately now, exactly now etc. 
Expressing time in the present: what happened immediately.
Just then, instantly, At the moment etc.
Expressing time in the future, past and perfect tenses; when something takes place.
Roof, house top, covering etc.
Corrugated sheet that shades a building.

Smacking a surface ineffectively.
Direct, focus etc.
Explaining directions.
Population, many people etc.
Expressing numerical strength.
Flesh, fat, improving in health etc.
Expressing healthy condition.
Always, many time, habitual, often etc.
Doing something always or often
Equal, parts etc.
Expressing equal divition.
Silly, foolish etc.
To express silly behaviour.
Unconscious, silent etc.
A state of sub consciousness.
The condition of undone rice.
Dust, separate etc.
Expressing the nature of uncountable nouns such as; salt, sand, dust etc.
Shaky, wobbly, not strong etc.
Expressing the elasticity of things like rubber.
Plenty yam
Number, plenty etc.
Expressing occasion carried out with yam food only.
Encompassing, unorganised etc.
Passing through a difficult forest part, or fetching unorganised firewood.
Strong, hard etc.
When something is being done with strength.
Interminable, infinitive etc.
When something is continuously inexhaustible.
Supersonic, fast movement etc.
Used to denote noisy wind or fast moving wave.
Pride, ostentatious etc.
When one behaves as though he is strong when actually he is not.
Very little
A little, small, inadequate etc.
Expressing a little quantity.
Greasy, elastic etc.
Making reference to slippery substance.
Shaky, flexible, quivering etc.
When something is shaking.
Swerving, unsteady etc.
When something, especially bridge is swerving.
Extra smooth
Smooth, sly, bareheaded etc.
When someone’s head is without a hair.
Squeezed, slice etc.
Like a dry leaf can be squeezed to pieces.
Too sweet
Sugary, sweet etc.
As sweet as honey.
small, roundish etc.
Expressing shapes: eg.  tiny balls of onion.
Ethereal, shallow, surface, not deep etc.
To cut grasses above the roots.
Feebly, very weak etc.
One who falls down too often.
Things not fasten very strong.

Expressing the sound produced by birds while flying.

The sound of animals on the run.
Scattered, strewn, speckled, stippled, freckled etc.
Expressing unorganised firewood.
Soft, weak etc.
Expressing the state of knead soil.
A relative term for expressing the state of wool or silk.
Used to express the state of hairs that are slippery or too soft.
Easy, straight, soft etc.
When something passes through a channel freely.
Used to express the state of hairs that are slippery or too soft.
Very early
On time, too early etc.
Expressing time: how early enough when somebody departed.
Weak, slippery etc.
A relative term for expressing the texture of silk.
Bits, separate, sporadic etc.
Expressing scarcity.
Muddy, wet etc.
The state of soft and wet soil.
Hiding etc.
Expressing the movement of a tortoise.
A little
Very small, inadequate etc.
Used with non-count nouns to mean very small.
Finished, exhausted, not at all etc.
Used to say that something is finished.
Frequently, steady, all the time etc.
To express a regular occurrence.

The last example appears relatively different from the rest. There are several examples of such doublies in Nkalaha language. They are realised in conversation in the same manner as their English counterparts such as “father-in-law” etc. The preposition, “ge,” does not play a different function other than revealing the relationship amidst the doubly. “Mgbe” in this context cannot stand alone and function as a doubly. To position it properly, the preposition “ge” has to be introduced to make it meaningful and conventional. It also functions as a post-modifier to the noun phrase. As a post-modifier, “ge” joins with “mgbe” to extend the function and meaning of the noun, “mgbe” (time). Without the preposition, “mgbe-mgbe” (time-time) becomes meaningless. Time as a noun connotes definiteness, particular etc. but with the post-modifier, the meaning becomes undefined and endless/continuous. In this view, it could be best expressed ordinarily as time without numbering or uncountable.

Another example of such doublies used frequently in conversations is “nha-mu-nha.” It is often pronounced as a word, but deep structural examination shows that it is a doubly; a compound word, not just a word. Unlike mgbe-ge-mgbe, nha-mu-nha may be considered more complex in their analysis. This is because, “ge,” in the first example is naturally a preposition and can only play such role due to prepositions in sentences. In the case of the latter, “mu” is a personal pronoun; a purpose it can only serve as a unit of conversation. Here we see “mu” assuming the role of a preposition. And as a preposition, it functioned here as a complimentizer to the noun phrase “Nha.” Nha as a unit can only mean a fine, penalty etc. but with the presence of “mu” – acting as a preposition – it completes the meaning intended by the noun phrase. In this context, the doubly means equality, equal, the same measurement etc.

Every facet of Nkalaha language; characteristic behaviour, practices and ideas has a particular doubly or group of doublies that represent it. A collection of doublies may tend to express a same or similar situation, idea etc. but they may not mean exactly the same thing. As ideas, concepts, situations and actions are similar but do not mean exactly the same thing, so are doublies. Indebt knowledge into the grammar of the language and its vocabularies, both as a unit of conversation and in combinations, exposes one to the understanding of each doubly. This is because, in like manner with proverbs, doublies are composed of deep structures that carry deeper meaning than the normal everyday grammar of the community’s language.

                        NKALAHA PROVERBS AND WISE SAYING

Nkalaha has repertoires of proverbs and wise saying which are used often and when elders engage themselves in talks. The use of those proverbs and wise sayings during conversations indicates competence among the users. When they are used in discussions, they are not explained. As was believed, anybody to whom proverbs are explained, then the dowry paid over his mother’s head becomes a waste. These are the more living memoyes, viable enough, through which Ebe Egbara can never be forgotten in the history of Nkalaha.  Ebe Egbara was the more prominent voice in the modern era through whom dozens of Nkalaha proverbs had been retained and made popular through his consistent use of it. He, however, is not alone in this attitude. Other elders use proverbs and wise saying any time they are engaged in a discussion. So, during each discussion, Ofeke (incompetent ones) avails their opportunity to learn them. Through this means Nkalaha proverbs have survived till date. It is in a way of revealing the necessity of this generational transfer that the proverb – a child that sits closer to his father knows where he keeps things – is said.

The difference between Ebe Egbara and other elders in the use of proverbs is that he does not have a medium for the rendition of his proverbs. unlike elder Nnaji nwa Nnaji who sees proverbs as a compendium which is used in selection with the situation of use determining the kind of proverbs more suiting to be used, Ebe Egbara believes that – though it is a compendium – proverbs are not subjected the situational determination. According to him, “Ilu bu ofu; onye l’ efu ofu l’ efu ihe okchoru ofu mgbeobule oji kcho ofu ye (proverbs are talks; one that talks talk talks what he wants to talk any time he wants to talk it).” Nnaji disagrees to this. He believes that proverbs are said in accordance with the speech that prompted them, and that he who uses proverbs simply because he knew them without being directed by the act of speech according to the situation of use may succeed ridiculing himself before those who knew the proverbs and where best they fit in. According to him, “Ofu l’ ewote ofu, me ofu l’ aka ihe ala-efu (talks bring talks and talks determine what to talk).”

Ebe Egbara used proverbs almost all the time. He used them while playing games in the playground and also at discussion times. He stands out remarkable in this use when he became the more prominent and consistent voice through which students researching on Nkalaha proverbs had gathered copious proverbs and wise saying. To do this, he does not collect money. All the researcher needed do is to make liquid substance available for him to grease his throat while talking. Some of Nkalaha proverbs and wise sayings are peculiar to her while many of them are used by other Igbo speaking communities. Those peculiar to Nkalaha are those ones informed by the cultural instincts that conditioned Nkalaha language. In progress, we shall attempt to transcribe and translate these proverbs and give what may serve as suggested meaning of each of them.

Suggested Interpretations
Obuchiru uzo l’ anu igiji nduma.
He who lives by the road hears the step of spirits.
One living by the roadside is opened to all kind of noise.
Amaguama adugu egbu nwa onye ozo.
Ignorance does not kill another man’s child.
What one does not know will not kill him.
Ochunta maru okpa nne nchi.
The hunter knows the leg of mother-grasscutter.
What one does often is what he knows too well.
Oyi iji ekwensu.
Eating Satan’s iji

Jukaru uto naru ubo
Rejecting three and collect two.
When one rejects bigger thing after he had been persuaded, and finally he turns around begging for it when the quantity has reduced.
Ogjeru Owo hvuru Ega.
He that went to Owo sees Ega.
Some things are peculiar to some distinct places and can be seen mainly there.
Suo mkpo fuye eka.
Hit a blow, open your hand.
Doing something in a clear way to prevent suspicion.
Ochi mma a la akwa eka l’ adzi.
Building a masquerade that would be pushed from behind.
One who does something that is reliably strong, or doing something straight away.
Edzi nakpa, edzi noyi.
Body hot and body cold.
Not being particular/specific.
Ekwe-ekwe l’ ekwe l’ute ekwere.
Doubtful person that believes only when he sees.
He that believes only what he sees.
Akanya alu ka l’ okpozo.
Land condition is worst in Okpozo.
Expression of how bad a thing/person is, especially that of a child who hardly comes to term.
Boshi nta achuo ye le owere nchi.
On hunting day we will hunt at grasscutter’s aboad.
Until the day mentioned, we shall see.
Obiaru abia amagu Adzi owere Edeagbo.
A stranger does not know Edeagbo’s backyard.
You are completely strange to your place of visit.
Onye igje ka onye ishiewo abo.
A traveller tells more story than a while-hairs man.
A traveller acquires more history than stationary aged people.
Ozakuru kpataru nku eji ye.
Ozakuru that brought firewood with which it is fried.
One that serves as a source to what finally affects him.
Yie okwa wuchie nta.
Eat bush fowl and stop hunting.
Doing something that prevents further assistance from another. Especially cheating or borrowing without paying back.
Eke chi juhuru awushi owa.
Where night falls one kips Owa.
Discontinuing where one’s strength gets exhausted.
Anu gbala ta, echi bun ta.
If animal escapes today, tomorrow is another hunt.
Tomorrow we continue from where we stopped.
Shi gbuo nwa ye meru me ha ye.
He that said kill his child made him to be freed.
If a parent shows dissupport to his child’s ill acts, people are spontaneously persuaded to withhold their intended punishment.
Adugu azu ahva okuku l’ uyi.
One doesn’t bargain fowl’s price while it is walking about.
Prices are not decided when the goods are not seen.
Mgbogiji shi atubu enya ye me ye abugu le ye laru l’ ite ohvere.
Mgbogiji said that he should be expected unless he has entered a pot of soup.
Not losing all hope until it is completely over.
Eledekwe okpa nwa ngbeke ji agba akwa ebe.
Let us see the leg Nwa Mgbeke would use to walk on ebe bridge.
Let’s see how he will do it.
Eleluo nwaite ogbanyo oku.
If you look down on Nwaite it will quench fire.
It you underrate someone he will surprise you.
Okuku nchi ike l’anu ihe le iteohvere.
A stubborn bird hears something in the pot of soup.

Nwata yele jimkpa l’eyi ede eyi abala, chi sayu o la shi ye nne mbiafu.
A child that eats cocoyam and water-yam with an elder, if day breaks he will call him mother-stuffer.
Over familiarity brings contempt.
Onye shi le nkuchi shiru ye?
Who said that deaf said to him?
Silent holds many troubles.
Okchoru onwu ta ovube.
He that wants to die should eat chameleon.
Death is very close by, at least one can take poison to die.
Onye ndu nyiru l’akpa nkata.
One who is fade up with life weaves basket.
A confused person pays attention to things that are meaningless.
Ike hvu onye l’asu nyi oshi okuku hfii.
If one pounding food gets fatigued he tell fowls hfii.
An exhausted engages himself to needless activities.
Emeru onye l’imi oyagu?
Who is touched on the nose and would not screech?
It is painful to bear pains.
Ohvu mkpushiru eka ruta manu orube oha.
If one finger stroked oil it will reach others.
One man’s single act is capable of affection an entire community, even a generation.
Onye nweneye l’ete egjo evu la-ako oko l’enya.
One whose relative dances a bad dance scratches his eyes.
No one fills happy seeing his own person getting involved in what the society frowns upon.
Kchotaru ekpe kchotaru mgbadaga mgbari.
He that invited ekpe invited Mgbadaga mgbari.
When a person brings noisy instrument closer to himself, he is bound to have noise in abundant.
Uzu l’amagu akpu ogele ye le egbe enya l’odu.
Blacksmith who could not build a metal gong let him look kite on the tail.
Learn from other people’s examples.
Oshishi fuchiru uzo l’eyi apa.
Tree standing by the road takes scars.

Ashi nwa-ine mekche imi, nwogbe l’ aduduo ke ye.
If a coaxed child is asked to clean his nose, the poor will do likewise.
Poor people also learn from the instructions given to people who are of better background around them.
Ihe agwo muru echoyaru ogologo.
What snake bigots always grows tall.
Like father or mother, so also is son or daughter.
Ijuta ishi nwa nkuta, ime eka me agba ye?
If you ask for a pupil’s head, what would you do with the jaw?
Being attentive is good, but not too inquisitive.
Ike avugu onye ogu ye huru l’oku.
One whose hoe is on fire does not become tired.
One doesn’t relent until his problem is settled.
Enya du ekpa ge chi ye anu.
Bags look in expectation that meat should be put in it.
When one expects a certain favour.
Hvuru hvuru ka kchara kchara oyi.
At all at all is better than none.
At least, a little is preferable to nothing.
Nwene onye anogu l’ogu ogu eyie ye ishi.
If one’s relative is not in a fight the fight will eat his head.
It is a brother (relative) that rescues one from difficulties mainly.
Umadu nabo laru l’ochi bu l’onye eto anogu.
Two people died in a fight because a third person is not around.
A third party is always a solution to the problem of two.
E dem gu ayimama.
I will design you with ayimama.
I will deal with you surprisingly.
Okuku ishi l’akaguaka adugu egje ogu ayigbagbara.
Fowl whose head is not strong does not go ayigbagbara fight.
Some contests are for mature people, not for kids.
Ike le ike jaa l’ulo, uzo l’eyeru onu.
When two warriors sleep in the same room, the door will be flung open.
The fight of two heroes is always inseparable.
Ishi umunna kpuru adugu echo echo.
The head shaved by kindred does not grow.
The deed of a kindred can be concealed to infinity.
Ndzi Agala l’enyoru onye oya.
The job Agala does for a sick person.
Works done without proper supervision.
Onye ayo mpoma l’egje egu anwu.
One that begs Mpoma goes to farm when it is sunny.
Dependence on another person’s instrument/assistance takes more time. 
Agba gburu onye too?
Wrestled till who throws?
Whose suggestion finally was taken?
Aluta abere ekchezo agaji.
When new bride comes the old will be forgotten.
New things are always on the eyes.
Nwanyi wujo nkata-ekcha ulo okpo agude e.
When a woman produces a basket of dry cocoyam she will long to be a widow.
If one becomes rich he yearns for independence.
Emere geole k’ola ada jide e jide e?
How had it gone that it is sounding hold it hold it?
How had it gone that they had started fighting?
Nwata quokcha eka osoru ogerenya riko nyi.
It a child washes his hands he dines with elders.
A brave child stands in the council of elders.
Onye ulo ye l’ere oku adugu achu nta okerefu.
One whose house is on fire does not pursue rat.
There is no luxury in difficult times.
Eke aturu omego ogu l’alu du nso.
Where people challenge the other for fight, the ground is near.
A proud mind should be allowed to prove himself.
Ohvu ehvo l’amu ma le ohvu chi adugu eke.
One womb gives births but one god does not create.
People from the same womb must not behave alike.
Egjigu eka nabo ahata aku l’uko.
They don’t use two hands to collect cannels from ceiling.
Things are better done one after the other.
Azode egu ulo afuru.
If farm is defended home will stand.
Leave no stone unturned.
Oke l’azo ebo, nanu ehvunahu ye.
One that struggles for two at the same time loses one.
Learn to do thing one after the other.
Anu l’akpa na na l’anwu na na.
Animal that moves one one dies one one.
Two is better than one.
Akakporo mio mio.
Akakporo mio mio.
Big for nothing.
Ine ju ite ojugu ehvo.
Ine filled pot but does not full the belly.
Big for nothing.
Ihvuru eju-ishi.
Plenty hairs.
Big for nothing.
Ejigu nwa alu ago alu.
A son of the soil is not used for sacrifice to earth goddess.
The free born is not treated like a slave.
Okuku yaru kpako ojiru gunu zode umu ye?
If fowl leaves kwoko what would she use to save her chicks?
Things that are necessary are also very pertinent to be done.
Okuku nyuo ehu alu acho ye oso.
If fowl pollutes the air ground will put it on the run.
A sinner runs before he is pursued.
Puri-puri adugu echiru anu-eba maka le anueba bu puri puri eka ye.
Puri-puri is not played to animals of feathers because animals of feathers are puri-puri of their own.
You do not cheat someone with what he knows best to do.
Ikpe maru edziofu le eka adzi doo.
Any adjudication that faults truth has bribe behind it.
Truth will always stand, no matter what.
Otu omego deru ikpere eka l’ire.
A doubtful person touched his elbow with his tongue.

Jibie l’agwo oya ufu me le ufu l’egbu o.
Doctor that cures waist pain but has waist ache.
One that assists others yet he has another problem pulling him around.
Agbagu eka ehvo nwater eze.
They don’t observe a child’s first tooth empty-handed.
Nothing goes for nothing.
Ashi nwata du ge ibe ye oshi l’ala eme ye onu.
When a child is asked to be like others he will say he is ridiculed.
A spoilt child hardly adheres to instructions and advice.
Nwata l’ehvu uzo oshi le ye la ala be okche ye.
If a child misses his way he will say he is going to her grandmother’s place.

Ukche du g’ekpa, onye du nya ke ye.
Thought is like a bag, every one carries his own about.
Everyone has his thought and makes use of it at will.
Aku b’egji eshi elu.
Cannel is used to prepare cannel oil.
Money is needed to get things done.
Eze gburu udele amawo ihe eji udele eme.
King that kills a vulture knows what vulture is used for.
Whatever a man does he has purpose(s) for it which he alone can explain better.
O jiru eka nta kote ke ufu.
He used small hand to invite a huge one.
When one provokes a superior hand to anger against him.
Eke l’ihe oloru ga gbagaru.
Python and what it swallows are stocked.
When one’s deed affects him.
Onwu okwa l’eke bia.
He brings a bush fowl alongside.
He came very early.
Ebule nya mgba.
Ram pull your horn.
Prove yourself.
Ike duru okuku ye gboo mami.
If fowl has power let it urinate.
If you have power, then show it.
Onye ukwa daru l’ata.
He that bread-fruit falls for consumes it.
One in a particular favour enjoys it.
A dem gu uyi ekpo-ekpo.
I will tattoo you indelibly.
I will teach a lesson you will never forget.
Onye nwe ozu l’apa l’ishi.
The owner of a corpse carries it at the head position.
You will begin your solution before helpers can come in.
Hvu-uzo new dzine igje.
One at the front has the greater part of the journey.
When one brings trouble, he feels the heat first before people that accompany him.
Ebe Nkalaha, ohvu-uzo l’enya.
Ebe Nkalaha that sees at distance.
One who spreads hands abroad than he helps those around him.
Eka ka onyene oyi bu oji ehvido ishi.
The hand one prefers is what he uses to support his head.
Over every situation, one chooses which he prefers.
Ugo eberu le mgbagbu.
The eagle has perched for a shot.
It is time to do what one proposed or promised he will do.
Abi muta ohu oku, anyi amuta mgbayebe eze.
If red yam learns to be hot, we learn opening of teeth.
If a matter becomes encompassing, one resorts to another solution.
Onye bu ihe akworu mi adzi chi l’onu ogbushie ye?
Who is he that if fish water is poured into his mouth and he will throw it away?
Everybody likes good things.
Otu mpoma l’ufu akcho ye.
Machete is on his waist but he looks for it.
When what you seek is around you.
Onye l’aturu onye gburu agu uka?
Who doubts what the man that killed a lion says?
Naturally, people accord respect to heroes, many a time their words are not doubted.
Agwo ohvuleonye hvuru l’awo eke.
The snake seen by one person often turns to a python.
When one exaggerates what only him had seen.
Opoto-ede maru ihe omeru alu gbaru obu kche l’elu.
Cocoyam-leaf that know its offence against the soil and faces the heavens.
Guilt of a sin convicts self more.
Ngwere lile l’egje makpu-makpu, amagu ke ehvo l’ata.
Every lizard moves with downward stomach, no one knows which is having stomach ache.
With many pretenses, no one knows who actually has a problem.
Aturu kpata ogu ebule ga nwe olu ye.
If a sheep brings a fight the ram will go in for it.
Women often bring problems that engulfed their husbands.
Enwe no nne ye l’adzi wota utu.
Monkey sat behind the mother’s back and pluck Utu.
When a child secretly engages in adults’ acts; especially sex.
Maa l’eyigu adugu ekweru ibe ye ehvu.
Masquerade who did not eat does not aid the other in his chorus.
A politics of chop-make-I-chop.
Okuku adugu ekchezo onye kworu ye odu l’udu mi
Fowl does not forget who plucked its feathers in the raining season.
Deeds that touch life are not easily forgotten.
Ihe eka onyene bu mi iteodo ye.
One’s soul possession is her water pot.
Some things particularly belong to a person.
Onya kpohu a l’ekchezo uhvu ye.
If wound goes one forgets its pain.
When hardship is over, one finds it very hard to remember the bad old days.
Ejigu akpata atuhve aba ogerenya.
No one becomes rich if he gets things and throws it away easily.
Extravagance does not make one rich.
Ayota ewochitegu kpataru akchode ahvugu.
Borrowing without returning leads to seeking and not seen.
Keeping borrowed items too long makes the owner not to release it next time.
Ohvuru edzi nyi atukwe mkpurohva.
He that rejects food should not hoot.
Do not complain when willingly you reject something.
Nta mgbada ejuo agu chi.
The hunt for Ngbada has engaged lion till night.
Busy all day.
Kpataru nku ehuhu shi ngwere biaru ye oru.
He that fetched insect infected firewood invites lizards.
When what you did brings an evil recompense.
Ehuhu du l’anu bu anu.
The insect in a meat is a meat.
When a matter is reconcilably inseparable.
Emeka bu mi-la-anwu.
Emeka is rain-and-sun.
Emeka is subtle.
Eme ngwa ngwa emeyaru odachi.
If one does fast fast, he will prevent uncertainty.
A stitching time saves nine.
I l’emeru onye ishi mkpomkpo imiko, obu gu l’akpu ye?
You take pity for a big-headed person, are you his barber?

Enya ka ibe ye bu enya zaru-aza.
An eye that is bigger than the other is a swollen eye.

Ishi ka ishi l’ehvu okwete.
A head that is bigger than another head carries Okwete.

Eka l’okpa ha nhata nha.
Hand and leg size the same.
When things are equal without difference.
Kee ye yere-yete.
Divide it down to the last.
Lowest possible divisibility.
Oshie l’oshiguye.
Said and didn’t say.
Etchetra, etchetra.
Uyi nduma deru adugu ekpo-ekpo.
The tattoo of the spirit does not wash away.
The seed nature grows does not die.
Adugu amu oku akcho ihe agba l’eka.
They do not use lantern to seek what is on the hand.
Too obvious than can be sought for.
Nwe ihe ye ma oka ye.
The owner of a thing know how best to use it.
One is the master of his belonging.


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